Dr martin luther king jr research paper
Veteran African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin was King's first regular advisor on nonviolence. Rustin had applied nonviolence with the Journey of Reconciliation campaign in the s,  and Wofford had been promoting Gandhism to Southern blacks since the early s. King had initially known little about Gandhi and rarely used the term "nonviolence" during his early years of activism in the early s.
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King initially believed in and practiced self-defense, even obtaining guns in his household as a means of defense against possible attackers. The pacifists guided King by showing him the alternative of nonviolent resistance , arguing that this would be a better means to accomplish his goals of civil rights than self-defense.
King then vowed to no longer personally use arms. In the aftermath of the boycott, King wrote Stride Toward Freedom , which included the chapter Pilgrimage to Nonviolence. King outlined his understanding of nonviolence, which seeks to win an opponent to friendship, rather than to humiliate or defeat him. The chapter draws from an address by Wofford, with Rustin and Stanley Levison also providing guidance and ghostwriting. King was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi and his success with nonviolent activism, and as a theology student, King described Gandhi as being one of the "individuals who greatly reveal the working of the Spirit of God".
In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, "Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity.
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King's admiration of Gandhi's nonviolence did not diminish in later years. He went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in , hailing the "successful precedent" of using nonviolence "in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to challenge the might of the British Empire He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage.
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Another influence for King's nonviolent method was Henry David Thoreau 's essay On Civil Disobedience and its theme of refusing to cooperate with an evil system. Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement. He publicly discouraged it as a widespread practice, but acknowledged that it was sometimes necessary.
King was an avid supporter of Native American rights. Native Americans were also active supporters of King's civil rights movement which included the active participation of Native Americans. Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race.
Even before there were large numbers of Negroes on our shores, the scar of racial hatred had already disfigured colonial society. From the sixteenth century forward, blood flowed in battles over racial supremacy. We are perhaps the only nation which tried as a matter of national policy to wipe out its indigenous population. Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. Indeed, even today we have not permitted ourselves to reject or to feel remorse for this shameful episode.
Our literature, our films, our drama, our folklore all exalt it. King assisted Native American people in south Alabama in the late s. The South had so many seemingly outlandish racial problems: In this case, light-complexioned Native children were allowed to ride school buses to previously all white schools, while dark-skinned Native children from the same band were barred from riding the same buses.
He promptly responded and through his intervention the problem was quickly resolved. He put into words his belief that one must not use force in this struggle "but match the violence of his opponents with his suffering. On the spur of the moment Dr. During the March on Washington there was a sizable Native American contingent, including many from South Dakota, and many from the Navajo nation. King was a major inspiration along with the civil rights movement which inspired the Native American rights movement of the s and many of its leaders.
Inspired by Dr. King, who was advancing the civil rights agenda of equality under the laws of this country, we thought that we could also use the laws to advance our Indianship, to live as tribes in our territories governed by our own laws under the principles of tribal sovereignty that had been with us ever since We believed that we could fight for a policy of self-determination that was consistent with U.
They both have weaknesses And I'm not inextricably bound to either party. Actually, the Negro has been betrayed by both the Republican and the Democratic party. The Democrats have betrayed him by capitulating to the whims and caprices of the Southern Dixiecrats. The Republicans have betrayed him by capitulating to the blatant hypocrisy of reactionary right wing northern Republicans. And this coalition of southern Dixiecrats and right wing reactionary northern Republicans defeats every bill and every move towards liberal legislation in the area of civil rights.
Although King never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October he said that he had not decided whether he would vote for Adlai Stevenson II or Dwight D.
Eisenhower at the presidential election , but that "In the past I always voted the Democratic ticket. Kennedy : "I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one. In , King urged his supporters "and all people of goodwill" to vote against Republican Senator Barry Goldwater for president, saying that his election "would be a tragedy, and certainly suicidal almost, for the nation and the world. King supported the ideals of democratic socialism , although he was reluctant to speak directly of this support due to the anti-communist sentiment being projected throughout the United States at the time, and the association of socialism with communism.
King believed that capitalism could not adequately provide the basic necessities of many American people, particularly the African-American community. King stated that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs.
Example research essay topic: Martin Luther King Jr Montgomery Bus Boycott - 1,354 words
In an interview conducted for Playboy in , he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. He posited that "the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils. He stated, "It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races. Recently, the press has been filled with reports of sightings of flying saucers.
While we need not give credence to these stories, they allow our imagination to speculate on how visitors from outer space would judge us. I am afraid they would be stupefied at our conduct. They would observe that for death planning we spend billions to create engines and strategies for war.
They would also observe that we spend millions to prevent death by disease and other causes. Finally they would observe that we spend paltry sums for population planning , even though its spontaneous growth is an urgent threat to life on our planet. Our visitors from outer space could be forgiven if they reported home that our planet is inhabited by a race of insane men whose future is bleak and uncertain.
There is no human circumstance more tragic than the persisting existence of a harmful condition for which a remedy is readily available. Family planning , to relate population to world resources , is possible, practical and necessary. Unlike plagues of the dark ages or contemporary diseases we do not yet understand, the modern plague of overpopulation is soluble by means we have discovered and with resources we possess.
What is lacking is not sufficient knowledge of the solution but universal consciousness of the gravity of the problem and education of the billions who are its victims Actress Nichelle Nichols planned to leave Star Trek in after its first season , wanting to return to musical theater. King explained that her character signified a future of greater racial harmony and cooperation. Keep doing what you're doing, you are our inspiration.
And I thanked him and I told him I was leaving the show. All the smile came off his face. And he said, 'Don't you understand for the first time we're seen as we should be seen. You don't have a black role. You have an equal role. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader. Kennedy to proceed with wiretapping of King's phone lines. The Bureau placed wiretaps on the home and office phone lines of Levison and King, and bugged King's rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country.
For years, Hoover had been suspicious about potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights. The FBI feared Levison was working as an "agent of influence" over King, in spite of its own reports in that Levison had left the Party and was no longer associated in business dealings with them.
MLK Research Paper | Martin Luther King Jr. | Mahatma Gandhi
However, by the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations. For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to communism. In a Playboy interview, he stated that "there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida. The attempt to prove that King was a communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot but had been stirred up by "communists" and "outside agitators.
King said that "the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavals—the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations. CIA files declassified in revealed that the agency was investigating possible links between King and Communism after a Washington Post article dated November 4, claimed he was invited to the Soviet Union and that Ralph Abernathy, spokesman for subject, refused to comment on the source of the invitation. Having concluded that King was dangerous due to communist infiltration, the FBI attempted to discredit King through revelations regarding his private life.
FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also had numerous extramarital affairs. Johnson once said that King was a "hypocritical preacher". In his autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down , Ralph Abernathy stated that King had a "weakness for women", although they "all understood and believed in the biblical prohibition against sex outside of marriage.
It was just that he had a particularly difficult time with that temptation. Abernathy criticized the media for sensationalizing the statements he wrote about King's affairs,  such as the allegation that he admitted in his book that King had a sexual affair the night before he was assassinated. In his book Bearing the Cross , David Garrow wrote about a number of extramarital affairs, including one woman King saw almost daily. According to Garrow, "that relationship The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King's family.
The American public, the church organizations that have been helping—Protestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you are—an evil beast. So will others who have backed you. You are done.