When you reference a book in an essay
Your email address will not be published. Writing Tips. In-Text Citations Harvard citations place basic source details within parentheses in the main body of your essay, with additional detail saved for the reference list see below. Reference List All books cited in your essay should also be listed in your reference list, ordered alphabetically by author surname. The general format for this is as follows: Surname, Initial s. If you cite a book written by a single author, the reference would look something like this: Mendler, A.
- APA: Citing Within Your Paper.
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- Harvard Referencing – How to Cite an Edited Book!
If you cite a book written by more than one author, remember to include and reverse all names: Moss, C. Author, I. Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Rogers, C. On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Edited Book With No Author. Article Featured in an Edited Book. Translated Books. Remember that your reference page needs to be double-spaced. The first line of each reference should be flush left with the margin of the page. Each subsequent line of your reference should be indented.
Parenthetical citation APA without author’s name in the text
If a digital object identifier DOI is available, include it at the end of the reference. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns? Continue Reading. Here's How.
Before you write
Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same.
A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author s and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher.
If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons : sign. Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding eds after their names, or ed. The title is capitalized. For example:. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too.
An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks not capitalized , followed by the name of the journal in italics capitalized , and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article.
If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets.
The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written.
EasyBib’s APA Parenthetical and Narrative Citations Guide
Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given.
The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics capitalized , the date, and finally the page where the article was found. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write.
Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture.
Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation.
The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title.
A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format
With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work.
Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in c.
EasyBib’s Guide to APA Parenthetical Citations
Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank.