Cause and effect earthquake essay
HubPages Inc, a part of Maven Inc. As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so. Varsha more. Causes of Earthquakes Earthquakes are caused by disturbances in the interior of the earth and other causes.
Tectonic Movements: The disturbances inside the earth are called tectonic movements. These forces bring about changes on the earth surface and physical features like mountains, plateaus and rift valleys are formed. Most disastrous earthquakes are caused by tectonic forces. Tectonic forces create tension and pressure and the stress begins to build up inside the earth. When the stress tends to be more than what the rocks of the earth can bear, the rocks are broken and displaced from their state of equilibrium.
It is known as faulting. The energy accumulated during faulting is released. This release of energy gives rise to mighty waves. These waves originate from a point called Focus in the interior of the earth and then spread out in all directions. On the surface whatever comes into their contact begins to vibrate. Volcanic Eruptions: The volcanic eruptions are often very violent and cause vibrations in the earth crust. Sometimes the vent of a volcano is blocked temporarily and explosive eruption takes place suddenly causing tremors in the earth crust.
The Krakatoa that erupted in became the cause of a violent earthquake there. Other Reasons: The roofs of underground caves sometimes give way and release great force to cause minor tremors in the earth crust. Nuclear explosions also release massive energy to cause tremors in the earth crust. Effects of Earthquakes Earthquakes are less advantageous and more harmful to man.
Damage done is chiefly in following respects: Loss of Property: Severe earthquakes reduce to rubble human structures ranging from huts to palaces and single storey to multi storey buildings. Even pipelines laid under the ground and railway lines are damaged or displaced.
The best example of this type of damage is Koyana earthquake in Loss of Life: Earthquake tremors of a few seconds takes the lives of thousands of people. Many people have been rendered homeless or suffered injuries in various ways.
Changes in the course of rivers: On account of the impact of earthquakes, sometimes rivers also change their course. Consequently, when floods come they play havoc with people's lives. Tsunamis: The earthquakes in the sea generate massive waves called Tsunami in Japanese language. It sometimes rises to the height of metres. It causes great damage to life and property of people living in coastal areas as well as to tourists.
- Frequently Asked Questions about Earthquakes (FAQ).
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Tsunami caused by an earthquake in the sea near Sumatra on 26th Dec, hit southeast Asian countries including India and Sri Lanka. There was heavy damage in these countries. More than 3 lakh people died. Mud Fountains: On account of earthquakes of high intensity, warm water and mud fountains also burst.
Cracks in Earth Crust: Earthquake cause cracks in earth's crust anywhere in fields, roads, parks and even hills. They are thus rendered useless. The San Andreas fault in California, U. Did You Know? Geographical Distribution of Earthquakes It is true that the earthquakes can happen in any part of the world. Circum-Pacific Earthquake Belt: This belt includes all the coastal areas around the vast pacific ocean. The most talked about earthquake areas in this zone include Japan, Chile, California and Mexico. One of its branches passes through Mongolia and Lake Baikal and another branch extends to Myanmar.
In addition to these, the ocean ridges are also active earthquake zones. It is verrry useful for everyone if want to study in detail. Its usefull but not that much there are four distributions if yes reply. Thank-you very much mam This page help me a lot I want also explanation of floods thanks it helps in project. Very helpful Covered all the points I I didn't have to open different websites to find causes Helped me a lot in my geography n science project Thanks.
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These structure require the largest investment of resources to insure that they can provide services following an earthquake.conthemidoter.ga
To insure that we meet these goals we can take a number of steps, beginning with thoughtful and responsible planning and zoning laws. Since we know that sites with soft, water-saturated foundations are prone to damage, we should resist the temptation to build on those sits and we should certainly not put critical structures on such sites, and avoid building on these sites at all if possible. If that's not possible, try to compact the soft sediments before the constructing or anchor the structure in the basement.
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We can take a number of steps to strengthen buildings including using steel frame construction, adequately securing the structure to the ground through a solid foundation, incorporating shear walls and or cross-bracing into the structure, or more sophisticated approaches such as using rubber or steel pads to isolate the structure from the shaking. We have talked above seismic waves and how they vibrate the ground which can lead directly to the collapse of structures. There are other, secondary effects that are caused by earthquakes, most often a result of strong shaking.
A simple example common in many earthquakes are landslides. The shaking causes regions of the rock and soil to slide downhill. The same material would eventually fail with increased time, but earthquakes trigger many slides that do much bit of damage. Buildings aren't the only thing to fail under the stresses of seismic waves.
8 Harmful Effects of Earthquake
Often unstable regions of hillsides or mountains fail. In addition to the obvious hazard posed by large landslides, even non lethal slides can cause problems when they block highways they can be inconvenient or cause problems for emergency and rescue operations. Occasionally large landslides can be triggered by earthquakes.
In an earthquake off the coast of Peru produced a landslide than began 80 miles away from the earthquake. The slide was large witnesses estimated it's height at about 30 meters or feet , traveled at more than one-hundred miles per hour and plowed through part of one village and annihilated another, killing more than 18, people. In some cases, when the surface is underlain by a saturated, sand rich layer of soil, prolonged shaking can cause the expulsion of fluid from the sand layer resulting in large "sand blows" that erupt through the overlying strata.
In the earthquakes the sand blows were enormous and covered large regions of the Missouri bootheel.
Effects of Earthquakes
Liquefaction can cause other problems as the soil loses it ability to resist shear and flows much like quick sand. Anything relying on the substrata for support can shift, tilt, rupture, or collapse. A sometimes dramatic byproduct of certain types of earthquakes are tsunamis. Tsunami is a Japanese term that means "harbor wave". Tsunamis are frequently confused with tidal waves, but they have nothing to do with the tides, they are the result of a sudden vertical offset in the ocean floor caused by earthquakes, submarine landslides, and volcanic deformation.
In the volcanic eruption of Krakatoa resulted in the collapse of a caldera that initiated a tsunami which killed 36, people on nearby islands. On June 25, an earthquake off the Japanese coast generated a tsunami that hit the shore with wave heights ranging from 10 to feet. As the fishing fleets returned to shore following an overnight trip they found their villages destroyed and 22, people dead. In the last century more than 50, people have died as a result of tsunamis.
What causes earthquakes?
A sudden offset changes the elevation of the ocean and initiates a water wave that travels outward from the region of sea-floor disruption. Tsunamis can travel all the way across the ocean and large earthquakes in Alaska and Chile have generated waves that caused damage and deaths in regions as far away as California, Hawaii and Japan.
Tsunamis are initiated by a sudden displacement of the ocean, commonly caused by vertical deformation of the ocean floor during earthquakes. Other causes such as deformation by landslides and volcanic processes also generate tsunamis. The speed of this wave depends on the ocean depth and is typically about as fast as a commercial passenger jet about 0. This is relatively slow compared to seismic waves, so we are often alerted to the dangers of the tsunami by the shaking before the wave arrives. The trouble is that the time to react is not very long in regions close to the earthquake that caused the tsunami.